How to Restore Files from Formatted Hard Drive?

Have you lost your most important files from system hard drive/partition after formatting? For avoiding this type of issue, you have to keep proper backup of your precious files before trying to format your hard drive. If you have failed to do so, don’t get upset by thinking of your lost files because formatting doesn’t delete data permanently from any storage media like hard drive partition. Format task only erase the registry entries of files which are located in the hard drive and your drive file system will be converted with new file system structure. At this time you can come to know that formatted drive consist of existing files but it will be hidden to your installed operating system. Therefore you can recover files effectively from hard drive after formatting by make use of smarter recovery tool known as My Hard Drive Recovery which can scan your hard drive thoroughly and identifies lost files because of format task within short time period.

Some Possible Reasons behind Hard Drive Format

Accidental Formatting: Assume, you are trying to format any hard drive partition like local disk (E). At that time you may select wrong partition as local disk (G) instead of local disk drive (E). So the entire data which are saved in the local disk (G) can get lost immediately. Likewise you may format wrong system drive partition instead of formatting external hard drive.

Intentional Formatting: Computer hard disk drive may get damaged ir corrupted due to different causes such as bad sectors, severe virus attack, improper system usage, file system damage,. Whenever you try to start your system it may show some format error pop up message as “Disk drive not formatted… do you want to format?” in such a time you may click on “Ok” option in order access your hard drive partition instantly.

OS Reinstallation: Sometime, you may reinstall an operating system without taking important files and folders backup means severe data loss may take place after OS reinstallation.

However, you can restore formatted hard drive data with the help of this exclusive recovery tool. But before implementing this tool you should confirm that you didn’t save any new files on same hard drive partition after formatting it. If the hard drive free storage space is overwritten by saving new files after formatting means the success rate of this application can get affected. So please be calm after formatting your drive then execute this tool effectively.

Exclusive Features of My Hard Drive Recovery Software:

  • This reliable tool can perform formatted hard disk recovery after format operation effectively  which runs on all the trendy versions of Mac & Windows systems.
  • It can retrieve files from various hard drives such as SATA, IDE, SCSI and PATA which may contains any file system structure like FAT 16, HFS, NTFS, and ExFAT.
  • This tool Rescues files from formatted internal hard drives, , memory sticks, pen drives, memory cards, external USB HDD and so on.
  • Rescued files can be saved in any desired memory locations and the files are sorted based on file format, file size, file created or altered date, name of file for an easy access.
  • It can get back hundreds of file types including Word files (DOCX), videos(MOV,AVI,MP4) music files (MP3,AMR), PowerPoint files (PPT), digital photos (JPG, PNG), Excel files(XLSX,XLS) , etc.

An Advanced Way to Repair Oversize PST File

PST stands for personal storage table file, which is used in Microsoft Outlook application to store user data. Outlook PST file contains every information related to Outlook profile, emails and other attributes like contacts, journals, to – do tasks, calendar items, etc. PST file also used in other Microsoft client applications such as Microsoft exchange client. Microsoft Outlook is one of the popular email clients preferred by the people around the world. It can store emails and other Outlook items up to the maximum size of PST file used on it.

Earlier Outlook versions like Outlook 2000, 2002, have a PST file of size 2 GB. So, the user should need to store information within this limit. Suppose, this size limit is exceeded, the Outlook may go slow down its performance. You may not able to use Outlook further or to store any more data. Your Outlook will not work properly when the PST file reaches its limit so that you cannot open PST and store any more data on it. In order to overcome from such problem, you need to repair this oversized PST file. Outlook is not having any inbuilt tool to repair it, but you can do it, with the help of some third party applications such as Oversized PST Repair software.
Once the PST file reached to its maximum size, the advanced service pack will not allow you to store any more information on Outlook. However, if the PST file exceeded its large size, Outlook may become unable to perform functions like send / receive emails, add contacts, sending meeting requests, making notes, etc. Still, the Microsoft can provide external software to recover PST file which can bring your large PST file in its working state. But, after succeeding to recover PST file you may miss some Outlook items and which may loss permanently.

Under such critical situation, you can use Oversized PST Repair application. Before using any software, you should aware about Outlook version and operating system which you are using on your computer and make sure that this software is compatible or not. Suppose you have Outlook 2003 and it is not working properly because of the oversized PST file. Then you can use a PST repair software, to overcome from this critical situation. Thus, you can get PST repair software for any version of Outlook. One such tool which is able to repair PST file with any version of Outlook is Oversized PST Repair software.

Using this Oversized PST Repair software, you can fix all the errors related large size PST file. You can fix large PST file using this software on all versions of Outlook such as Outlook 2000, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2010, etc. It can retrieve all details from the PST file such as emails, attachments, etc. in their original format as it will not make changes in PST file information while recovering it. Even, you can use trial version of this software if you have any doubt regarding this software. The demo version of this software can allow you to view recovered items and to save them you have to make use of licensed version of this software.

Simple Way to Recover Photos from CF card

Compact Flash (CF) card is a storage gadget that has flash memory in a uniform enclosure. SanDisk, Nikon and Sony companies first started compact flash card format that are designed to high-resolution digital photo cameras and high-definition camcorders. These cards are obtainable with different storage capacities ranging from several MB’s to several GB’s. Compact flash cards are used in portable electronic gadgets and are generally formatted as FAT16 for cards sized up to 2GB and FAT32 for cards sized above 2GB.Digital single-lens reflex cameras like digital SLR or DSLR most commonly uses compact flash cards. DSLR camera stores the photos that are captured in a RAW image file format in the CF card. However, in some grievous situations, RAW photos may be deleted or lost from CF cards.

Some Reasons behind File Loss from CF card:

Accidental Deletion: You can vary from preventable conditions like accidental deleting the RAW photos files from DSLR camera by using the “Delete All” option to manifest situations that are beyond the control, as RAW photos can be lost due to CF card corruption or formatting of the CF card.

Malicious Program Attack: Sometimes, CF card may get corrupted due to severe file system corruption, malicious or virus attack etc. resulting in photo loss.

Antivirus Usage: In some cases, while removing the virus with the aid of antivirus tool from memory card, it may also result in photo loss. Antivirus program scans all the files and folders which are present on CF card. While scanning if the antivirus program finds any virus which is really harmful to the system, then along with virus the RAW files also get deleted by antivirus program. Y

Improper Usage of CF card: You may also lose RAW files if you unplugged or abruptly pulled your CF from card reader which is connected to the system because the system might be accessing the CF card.

Accidental Formatting: If you accidentally format the compact flash card, then the RAW files stored in the card, might not be accessible after formatting. Hence to recover the RAW files you can make use of Photo Recovery software.

You should always make sure to create a backup of the files. If backup is created, once you lost your photos then you can easily get back them. If you don’t have any backup of the RAW files then you can make use of this software.

Unique Features of Photo Recovery Software:

  • It is the best photo recovery software that is specially designed to recover deleted photos from CF card and also retrieve Raw images effectively.
  • You can easily download the demo version of the software from the Remo website that is available.
  • It also lets you to recover deleted or lost RAW images of various types like ARW, SR2, CR2, CRW, ORF, MRW, NEF, X3F, PEF, DNG, RAF, K25, DCR KDC etc.
  • The rescued files are sorted based on name of files, file created or modifies date, file size, type of files.

Tool to Convert Outlook OST File to PST File

Microsoft Outlook application is using worldwide by different employees, users, clients and many more people as because of its features. It has ability to store the different data like emails, messaging, contacts, reminder, tasks, journals, meeting and RSS feeds. These files include data which are store by the Microsoft Outlook in the file extension of .pst and .ost files. As these PST and OST files are the two native file format of Microsoft Outlook which allow user to access the data. Let us continue discussion about the two native file formats PST file and OST files as it play an important role in Outlook data.

PST stands for Personal storage table which is created by any user to store the personal data. While coming to the other file format OST file, it stands for offline storage table which allows user to access the Outlook data during offline server. User can change the Outlook data and easily updated when the internet server connection is available. Due to these facilities, these two files become famous and appreciated by many users. But OST file get easily corrupted or damaged. If the OST file is corrupted, then data containing in it can’t be access more. At this situation, you need not to be panic or restless as because there is a way to repair the corrupted OST file with the help of tool to convert OST file to PST file.

OST to PST Conversion Software is the most recommended tool which is used to convert OST to PST files and helps you to repair the files which are corrupted to access the data again. Many technicians and experts work hard for this tool and finally design OST to PST Conversion Software to fix Outlook data files in an easy way. It has excellent features which help user to convert OST file to PST file with ease. Lets us now see the features of this utility.

Excellent features of OST to PST Conversion Software:

  • OST to PST Conversion Tool has a good user interface by which any user can easily fix OST file which is corrupted or damaged by converting OST file to PST file.
  • This tool has the ability to fix any kind of Outlook files with the help of its inbuilt algorithm.
  • OST to PST Conversion Utility firstly convert OST file to PST file without any alter the original data file and make the useless file as the useful file.
  • With the help of this tool , you can convert OST to PST file on all the latest versions of Windows OS like Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows 2003, Windows 2008, Windows XP and Windows Vista.
  • It allows user to convert OST to PST file also on the different Outlook versions such as Outlook 2000, Outlook 2003, Outlook 2007, Outlook 2010, Outlook 2013, etc.

With these features it helps user to access file again which is corrupted. Let us see why actually OST file get corrupted or damaged.

Reason for the corruption of OST file:

Header corruption: The header file commonly used to store the basic information related to the file such as name, size, location, etc.  If the header file is corrupted then the Outlook data can’t be access more.

Upgrading server: User commonly think of the speed performance of the server, so every might plan to upgrade the server. Then there is chance of corruption of data while upgrading server.

Error while synchronizing: While synchronizing if any interruption occurs then the OST file might get corrupted and become inaccessible.

How to Recover Files that are Deleted?

Hi everyone, I have been working on a project from past two weeks on my Windows PC. Now I am facing problem because I have deleted some files of project accidently. It is very important for me to recover files without that I cannot carry on my project work further. If I failed to complete the task in time then it will be huge loss for me. Is there any method to recover files? Please help me to come out of this situation.

Nowadays, the technology is booming all over the world. Users taking there business to a great height and all their works are carried via computers, where they save different data related to business. On most occasions user ends up with making some silly mistakes by erasing files from PC and then later on they will realize the importance of the file. They search for the solution on internet or seek for help from there friends and family members, but they may not succeed every time to recover files. Don’t get disappointed! All your worries will be no more, because this article, we are providing you detailed info about the best file recovery software which can restore files that are deleted or lost from your system easily.

Most common factors where user may delete or lose files:

There are many situations for the deletion of files from the storage devices. Few of them are explained below:

Virus or Malware attack: Attack of virus is a common reason for deletion of files and folders. When user connects external USB drives to many PC’s which are infected by severe viruses to exchange some data or downloads some files or software from unauthorized websites those software come along virus program attached with it.

Formatted wrong partition: At time of extending the partition size user may format wrong partition unintentionally instead of shrinking the partition which results into loss of there important files and folders from that drive.

File system damaged: While changing the format of storage devices file system to another format. If an error encountered during this file system conversion which prevent user from accessing file from the drive.

Interruption in file exchange: When you connect pen drive to the system for transferring some files from it. During this process, if the system turned off abruptly then it may delete the data and cause you in data loss situation.

Outstanding features of Recover Files software:

Recover Files software is build with advanced algorithms and smart recovery modules. Due to this it scans the entire drives to locate the files in short span of time. User can recover all types of data like documents files, videos, songs and other precious data by employing this file recovery software in an efficient way. It can recover files which are deleted or lost from different storage devices like hard drives, USB drives, SD cards, external HDD, memory sticks, etc. After scanning the drive, you can take a look for retrieved files by previewing it.

This application restores files safe and secure way without editing the original files and saves data in different location. You can even store the recovered data in CD / DVD. It is compatible with both Windows and Mac OS and there various versions. It also supports different file system such as FAT, NTFS, ExtFAT, HFS+, HFSX, etc. The files might be deleted or loss from hard drives interface like IDE, STS and SCSI can also be recovered successfully.

Effective Software to Recover Deleted Files

A computer file is source or medium where information is stored digitally. Files are like container which contains different data or info. There are numerous types of files like text files, Word files, media files etc. Different types of storage devices like memory card, hard disk, cd/dvd etc. are used to store files. Files are highly reliable source as it is available to different programs for process. Files can be modified or transferred from one device to another etc.

Different ways how files are vanished from your hard drive?

The most painful thing to bear is that suddenly when you find that your files are vanished. Well, let’s discuss some instance on how you could have lost your file:

  • When you unintentionally press shift+delete key you may lose your file in just a sec or you have emptied your recycle bin. This two case are the most common case.
  • Virus modifies your files by modifying the information stored in the file. This could force your security system to delete your infected files.
  • If the transfer process is obstructed due to power failure, sudden removal of hard drive, lose connectivity etc. then also you could lose your files.
  • Most people make one common mistake, like removing their pen directly. If you remove any device in safe mode you are less likely to lose any files.
  • Storage devices with Bad Sector problem and other manufacturing defects could also be responsible of your lost files.

How to recover deleted file?

Many times people complain that suddenly they find out that all of their files are lost or accidently deleted. In companies, schools, people stores all their sensitive information in files like word file, .ppt files etc. Actually everybody who uses a system will usually keep the information in soft copy rather than in some notebook or diary. Let’s say some day, you find out that you have lost all your sensitive information. Well in that case you are in a state of dilemma of what you will do next? You might be wondering how to get back those files. Recovering deleted files could become a very hectic work for you. But recovering deleted files could become so much easier if you have a backup of your files. But if you don’t have a backup, then how you will restore those deleted files? There are many recovery software available in the internet but recovering deleted files needs a perfect software. Deleted file recovery can be easily carried out by a File Recovery Software. The following properties make this software a great tool:

  • It has great UI (user interface).
  • This software can recover files from different device including memory cards, portable hard disk, fire wire drives etc. it supports different brands of cards like Kingston, Transcend, SanDisk, Toshiba, Strontium etc.
  • The File Recovery Software is compatible with different versions of Windows.
  • To recover files which are inaccessible in XD card you can try XD card error recovery software which will help you to restore all files.
  • To restore photos from the XD card you could go for XD card recovery software.

Different measures to prevent  losing files:

  • To prevent your files from losing always keep a backup of your files. Backing up of files will not only recover the files but also it will save your precious time.
  • Always Scan your system with a good antivirus and kick out the various threats which are infecting the files.
  • Try to Increase the size of the recycle bin so that if you delete any large files it will not bypass it.
  • Always use a UPS for your desktop so that if power goes off your system will not shutdown abruptly and you will be able to save your data.



Know How to Repair MS Outlook PST File

Microsoft Outlook use to manage a large amount of emails as it is one of the most popular email client. Microsoft Outlook has many properties like organizing mails, calendar, managing contacts, etc. Microsoft Outlook use to share information and data through internet connectivity. The mails use to store on hard disk as PST file. If somehow these PST file gets damaged or corrupt then it could get repaired by in-built repair tool i.e. scanpst.exe. This tool can even repair mildly damaged password protected file. The main drawback of this tool is, it may fail when PST file get corrupted due to power surge, abrupt shutdown of system, or exceed its size limit. In such cases, you need not have to worry because you can make use of perfect and efficient software i.e. Fix PST software and can fix Outlook PST file in few easy steps.

Some of the reasons that can cause corruption of PST file on any system are detailed as follows:

Virus Attack: Due to severe virus and malware attack, PST file may get inaccessible. You can prevent yourself by these threats by the means of updated antivirus software.

Improper Closing: Improper closing of Microsoft Outlook application may lead corruption of PST file. If somehow due to any software conflicts and other error message MS-Outlook encounters unexpected closing. In such cases, usually data gets corrupted.

Usage over Network: Making use of single PST file by several users over a network may lead to PST file corruption. Interruption while using PST file can occur due to either software conflicts or due to problem associated with network connection.

Improper Recovery: Sometime due to several reasons PST file gets deleted from system. These files get recovered by any recovery tool. If that particular third party software is not so reliable and powerful. It may results in damaging of data by not recovering the data properly.

Accidental Deletion: Some of the attributes of MS Outlook get deleted by mistakenly. If the deletion of file is done using simple delete command then it can be restored back from recycle bin, however, if the deletion is done using Shift + Delete command then it may lead to permanent loss of data from system.

To fix such problems there is a way out is implementation of Fix PST software which acts as repairing software of PST file in a very efficient and effective way. This software use to scans the damaged and corrupted PST file and create new PST file which contains all the characteristics of the old corrupted PST file. Fix PST software stores the recovered files as newly created PST file then import all the recovered contents to Outlook easily.

If Microsoft Outlook exceeds its size limit then you cannot be able to open your Outlook profile and it becomes inaccessible. In such situation, best way to repair PST file is using Fix PST software. It has a smart technique that is able to recover your data without any further modification to your original data. On the other hand, this software is widely used by industry professionals for its efficiency to restore Outlook contacts and all other Outlook items.

Fix PST software can recover calendar , contacts, appointments, meetings, tasks, notes etc from corrupt PST file. Due to this software, you can also retrieve password protected file. This software also used to repair PST file on different Windows platform including Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7 etc.


How to Recover Data from SD Card

“I have an SD card that was formatted accidentally on my phone last night. I had over 2000 photos and songs on it and I would like to recover all of it back. Is there a way to recover data from SD card in a way that will retrieve each and every lost file from it?”

You can certainly recover data from SD card regardless of what caused the data from your SD card to go missing. All it takes is a SD card data recovery software which will run through your SD card and will retrieve all the data that was lost from it.

In this following video you will see how to recover data from SD card by making use of a SD card recovery software.

SD cards used in your phone, cameras and on other media devices usually save photos or songs. These multimedia files can sometimes act quite strangely and might end up missing from your SD card. To prevent such situations, a few users prefer to carry a backup for all their data that is present on their SD card. SD cards themselves are prone to lose user data off it so having data in terms of GB’s saved onto a SD card can be highly dangerous if the data has no backup created by the user.

As stated before, SD cards are highly prone to errors so your data is continuously under threat and might go missing from the SD card at any moment. This lost data can be restored if you have a backup, however, you can now also recover SD card data by making use of SD card data recovery software on your computer. Whenever you end up losing all the data off your SD card, the first thing you need to do is recover the same using a SD card recovery tool. The data lost from your SD card can have thousands of different files which can be of varying file sizes. While recovering the data from an SD card, the user might prefer an SD card recovery software that would recover each and every file off it without fail. One such recovery software is the one used in the tutorial video above that has the ability to recover SD card data regardless of what made the data to be lost.

An SD card recovery software must be able to support and recover data from SD cards of all brands as well. it must also support SD cards of all storage sizes and at the same time it should never crash during the recovery process. All the features come in the above used SD card recovery tool that guarantees a full recovery of all the data from your SD card.

Whenever you delete or end up losing data from your SD card, you can once again recover the same only if the lost/deleted data wasn’t overwritten in the memory of your SD card after the data loss. after data loss, you need to put your SD card away from all uses so that the lost data will never be overwritten and can easily be recovered back using a SD card recovery software as shown above. However, when your data gets overwritten, you cannot recover it back and is lost permanently from your SD card so it is highly important to stop using your SD card after losing data from it.

A few more features of this SD card recovery software:

  • It features an algorithm that has the ability to retrieve each and every file off your SD card regardless of the SD card storage size or its brand.
  • You can recover files of all sizes and types.
  • It lets you recover, view and then save the recovered data to any folder of your choice on your computer after the recovery is complete.
  • Its interface is designed to retrieve files from your SD card in just a few mouse clicks and requires lesser time to retrieve the files.

Easy Way to Recover Data from Quick Formatted Hard Drive

Hard drive is the secondary storage device of a computer, that stores program files and user’s files in the computer. Hard drives are robust,reliable and can be used for many years. There are various external hard drives available in the market which can be used to backup crucial data and to expand their total amount of space.

While coming to the formatting of your hard drive, you are having two methods format and quick format. The quick format method is a quick process, it will erase only the entries of the data and will not fix the bad sectors present on your hard drive. On other hand Formatting is a time taking process, it will erase data and also scan the bad sectors present on the hard drive and fix them.

When you formatted your hard drive by using quick format option, it will clears all the entries of the data but the actual data remains un-erased until they are overwritten. To recover the deleted or lost data, it is recommended to use a efficient software named Hard Drive Recovery software.  This software will helps you to perform the data recovery from quick formatted drive with ease.

How data may get deleted or lost from your hard drive?

Re-installing Operating System: When you are re-installing operating system with a new one OS. You have to perform quick format operation on your system hard drive, that will clears all the data present in your hard drive

By Virus Attack: Due to virus attack, it will creates many unwanted malicious files  and will corrupt the files system of your hard drive which will slow down performance of your computer. For improving performance of the system you may perform quick format of hard drive which leads to data loss.

By Improper Shutdown: Without proper termination of applications, or improperly shutting down of computer while background applications are running may leads to system hard drive format or the hard drive may get corrupted and the entire data present in it gets loss.

While File System Conversion: While converting from one file system to another file system, your hard drive should be quick formatted at that time you will lose the data. Before file conversion it is advisable to have a backup of file system from which you can restore its state

Main features in  Hard Drive Recovery:

  • Hard Drive Recovery is a specially designed software, it will scan the entire hard drive and recovers all the lost or deleted data.
  • It supports to recover data from FAT 12, FAT 16, FAT 32, NTFS partitions.
  • Recovered data is sorted on the basis of name, size, file format etc.
  • Find tool is useful to find data by name,size, time, date etc.
  • Save recovery session feature is available, once the hard drive is completely scanned and files are recovered you can save that session, further use we no need to scan again by using reload recovery session.
  • Preview the recovered files prior to restoring them.
  • To save the recovered data purchase the Hard Drive Recovery software(full version).

How to Retrieve Formatted Partition?

“I was performing defragmentation process on my system but in the middle of it, something went wrong and when I opened my hard drive partition there were no files on it, it’s been erased or formatted from my Windows PC. Actually I have stored lot of essential files and folders on that particular hard drive partition and the loss of those files are unimaginable; I don’t have any idea on what happened with my system technically. I am looking for probably the best tool to recover formatted partition, any help regarding this is appreciable.

As you know hard drives are considered to be the best storage device preferred by user to store and access huge amount of digital information. Hard drives are generally divided into different partition as per the requirement of the user. It is always advised to create more than one partition on the hard drive, so that the user can separate system files and user files. And even if the user lose access to one hard drive partition, user can still access the other hard drive partitions and this is one of the prime advantage of creating partition. And the basic disadvantage with any storage device is that all are vulnerable to data loss situations and hard drive is no exception. There are various unexpected reasons that lead to the formatting of the hard drive partition, lets study more about it.

Situations leading to formatting of the hard drive partition:

  • Accidental formatting: There may be instances like user by mistake will format the wrong partition instead of formatting unwanted partition.
  • Third party tools: Using unreliable third party applications to create new partitions at times might format the existing hard drive partition.
  • Installing multiple OS: While trying to install multiple operating system on hard drive will lead to formatting of hard drive.
  • Using command format: Having less knowledge in working with command prompt might also lead to formatting of hard drive.
  • Format errors: In order to overcome not formatted error, user will have to carry on with formatting and this makes the entire data inaccessible.
  • Corruption: In case of corruption to file system on hard drive partition, user will have to perform format operation, this results in total loss of files and folders from hard drive partition.

In case, if you are one among the victims of data loss due to formatting of hard drive as mentioned in the above scenarios then continue reading this page, as we are going to reveal simple steps to recover formatted partition with great ease. Most often user will keep the perception that by formatting hard drive partition the entire data is permanently deleted but that’s not actually true. The files are not permanently deleted instead the address of the file is deleted, just ensure that the files on your hard drive are not overwritten with new files. You can avail the services of Recover Formatted Partition tool to recover lost or deleted files after formatting.

Recover Formatted Partition tool comes with a simple design and it is well equipped with lot advanced features that allows user to recover data from formatted partition. It is one of the most recommended tool to perform formatted partition recovery under any circumstances leading to it as mentioned above. The utility rigorously scans your entire hard drive for lost files and folders using the effective scanning algorithms, which boosts the tool to restore different file formats. You can use this tool to recover data from formatted FAT32, FAT16, ExFAT, NTFS and NTFS5 partitions.

Additional features of Recover Formatted Partition

  • It supports recovery of data from formatted partitions on Windows operating systems like Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows XP, Windows Vista, etc.
  • Besides recovering data from formatted hard drive partition this tool can also recover data from memory cards, USB drives, MP3 players, digital cameras and lot more.
  • This tool allows user to resume scanning process by making use of save recovery session feature, user doesn’t need to rescan the entire hard drive again and again but instead make use of previously saved session.
  • Trial version of Recover Formatted Partition facilitates the user to preview the recovered files from formatted partition.